"TITTER YE NOT"
How do you brainwash a
Give them a Enema
'Our founder may be dead and gone, but our plans to
brainwash youngsters and
adults alike for world
domination will continue long
after his legacy was made.'..
said a Disneyland spokesperson
According to studies, the best
way to brainwash someone is to tie them to a chair and play
them shitty music.
A bit like being quadriplegic at a One Direction gig.
For my birthday, my friend
bought me a numeracy game
that you can control with your mind.
I really didn't like it, but it's the thought that counts.
Project MK Ultra — sometimes referred to as the CIA's mind
control program — was the code name given to an illegal program
of experiments on human subjects, designed and undertaken by the United States of America
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Experiments on humans were intended to identify and develop
drugs and procedures to be used in interrogations and torture, in order to weaken the individual to
force confessions through mind control. Organized through the Scientific Intelligence Division of the
CIA, the project coordinated with the Special Operations Division of the U.S. Army's Chemical
Corps. The program began in the early 1950s, was officially sanctioned in 1953, was reduced in scope in 1964, further curtailed in 1967 and officially halted in 1973. The program engaged in many illegal activities; in particular it used unwitting U.S. and Canadian citizens as its test subjects, which led to controversy regarding its legitimacy.
MK Ultra used numerous methodologies to manipulate people's mental states and alter brain functions, including the surreptitious administration of drugs (especially LSD ) and other chemicals, hypnosis, sensory deprivation, isolation, verbal and sexual abuse, as well as various forms of torture.
The scope of Project MKUltra was broad, with research undertaken at 80 institutions, including 44 colleges and universities, as well as hospitals, prisons and pharmaceutical companies. The CIA operated through these institutions using front organizations, although sometimes top officials at these institutions were aware of the CIA's involvement. As the US Supreme Court later noted, MK ULTRA was:
Concerned with "the research and development of chemical, biological, and radiological materials capable of employment in clandestine operations to control human behavior." The program consisted of some 149 sub projects which the Agency contracted
out to various universities, research foundations, and similar institutions. At least 80 institutions and 185 private researchers participated. Because the Agency funded MK ULTRA indirectly, many of the participating individuals were unaware that they were dealing with the Agency.
Project MK Ultra was first brought to public attention in 1975 by the Church
Committee of the U.S. Congress, and a Gerald Ford commission to investigate
CIA activities within the United States. Investigative efforts were hampered by the
fact that CIA Director Richard Helms ordered all MK Ultra files destroyed in 1973;
the Church Committee and Rockefeller Commission investigations relied on the
sworn testimony of direct participants and on the relatively small number of
documents that survived Helms' destruction order. In 1977, a Freedom of
Information Act request uncovered a cache of 20,000 documents relating to project
MK Ultra, which led to Senate hearings later that same year. In July 2001, some
surviving information regarding MK Ultra was officially declassified.
In 1945 the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency was established and given direct
responsibility for Operation Paperclip. The program recruited former Nazi
scientists, some of whom had been identified and prosecuted as war criminals
during the Nuremberg Trials.
Several secret U.S. government projects grew out of Operation Paperclip. These
projects included Project CHATTER (established 1947), and Project BLUEBIRD
(established 1950), which was renamed Project ARTICHOKE in 1951. Their
purpose was to study mind control,interrogation, behavior modification and
The project's intentionally oblique CIA cryptonym is made up of the digraph MK,
meaning that the project was sponsored by the agency'sTechnical Services Staff,
followed by the word Ultra (which had previously been used to designate the
most secret classification of World War II intelligence). Other related cryptonyms
include Project MK NAOMI and Project MK DELTA.
Headed by Sidney Gottlieb, the MK Ultra project was started on the order of CIA
director Allen Welsh Dulles on April 13th, 1953. Its aim was to develop mind-
controlling drugs for use against the Soviet bloc, largely in response to alleged
Soviet, Chinese, and North Korean use of mind control techniques on U.S.
prisoners of war in Korea. The CIA wanted to use similar methods on their own
The CIA was also interested in being able to manipulate foreign leaders with such
techniques, and would later invent several schemes to drug Fidel Castro.
Experiments were often conducted without the subjects' knowledge or consent. In
some cases, academic researchers being funded through grants from CIA front
organizations were unaware that their work was being used for these purposes.
In 1964, the project was renamed MK SEARCH. The project attempted to
produce a perfect truth drug for use in interrogating suspected Soviet spies during
the Cold War, and generally to explore any other possibilities of mind control.
Another MK Ultra effort, Sub-project 54, was the Navy's top secret "Perfect
Concussion" program, which was supposed to use sub-aural frequency blasts to erase memory. However, the program was never carried out.
Because most MK Ultra records were deliberately destroyed in 1973 by order of then CIA director Richard Helms, it has been difficult, if not impossible, for investigators to gain a complete understanding of the more than 150 individually funded research sub-projects sponsored by MK Ultra and related CIA programs. The project began during a period of what Rupert Cornwell described
as "paranoia" at the CIA, when America had lost its nuclear monopoly, and fear of Communism was at its height. James Jesus
Angleton, head of CIA counter intelligence, believed that the organization had been penetrated by a mole at the highest levels.
The Agency poured millions of dollars into studies examining methods of influencing and controlling the mind, and of enhancing their ability to extract information from resistant subjects during interrogation. Some historians have asserted that creating a "Manchurian Candidate" subject through "mind control" techniques was a goal of MK Ultra and related CIA projects. Alfred McCoy has claimed that the CIA attempted to focus media attention on these sorts of "ridiculous" programs, so that the public would not look at the
primary goal of the research, which was developing effective methods of torture and interrogation. Such authors cite as one example
that the CIA's KUBARK interrogation manual refers to "studies at McGill University", and that most of the techniques recommended in KUBARK are exactly those that researcher Donald
Ewen Cameron used on his test subjects (sensory
deprivation, drugs, isolation, etc.).
One 1955 MK Ultra document gives an indication of the
size and range of the effort; this document refers to the
study of an assortment of mind-altering substances
described as follows:
Substances which will promote
illogical thinking and impulsiveness to the point where the
recipient would be discredited in public.
Substances which increase the efficiency of meditation
Materials which will cause the victim to age faster/slower in maturity.
Materials which will promote the intoxicating effect of alcohol.
Materials which will produce the signs and symptoms of recognized
diseases in a reversible way so that they may be used for malingering,
Materials which will cause temporary/permanent brain damage and loss of memory.
Substances which will enhance the ability of individuals to withstand privation, torture
and coercion during interrogation and so-called "brain-washing".
Materials and physical methods which will produce amnesia for events preceding
and during their use.
Physical methods of producing shock and confusion over extended periods of time
and capable of surreptitious use.
Substances which produce physical disablement such as paralysis of the legs, acute
Substances which will produce a chemical that can cause blisters.
Substances which alter personality structure in such a way that the tendency of the recipient to become dependent upon another person is enhanced.
A material which will cause mental confusion of such a type that the individual under its influence will find it difficult to maintain a fabrication under questioning.
Substances which will lower the ambition and general working efficiency of men when administered in undetectable amounts.
Substances which promote weakness or distortion of the eyesight or hearing faculties, preferably without permanent effects.
A knockout pill which can surreptitiously be administered in drinks, food, cigarettes, as an aerosol, etc., which will be safe to use, provide a maximum of amnesia, and be suitable for use by agent types on an ad hoc basis.
A material which can be surreptitiously administered by the above routes and which in very small amounts will make it impossible for a person to perform physical activity.
MUSE MK ULTRA
CIA documents suggest that "chemical, biological and radio-logical" means were investigated for the purpose of mind control as part of MK Ultra. A secret memorandum granted the MK Ultra director up to six percent of the CIA research budget in fiscal year 1953, without oversight or accounting. An estimated $10 million USD (roughly $87.5 million adjusted for inflation) or more was spent.
Early CIA efforts focused on LSD, which later came to dominate many of MK Ultra's programs. Technical Services Staff officials understood that LSD distorted a person's sense of reality, and they felt compelled to learn whether it could alter someone's basic loyalties. The CIA wanted to know if they could make Russian spies defect against their will and whether the Russians could do the same to their own operatives.
Once Project MK Ultra officially got underway in April, 1953, experiments included administering LSD to mental patients, prisoners, drug addicts and prostitutes, "people who could not fight back," as one agency officer put it. In one case LSD was
administered to a mental patient in Kentucky for 174 days. LSD was also administered to CIA employees, military personnel, doctors, other government agents, and members of the general public in order to study their reactions. LSD and other drugs were usually administered without the subject's knowledge or informed consent, a violation of the Nuremberg Code that the U.S. agreed to follow after World War II. The aim of this was to find drugs which would irresistibly bring out deep confessions or wipe a subject's mind clean and program him or her as "a robot agent."
In Operation Midnight Climax, the CIA set up several brothels in San Francisco, California to obtain a selection of men who would be too embarrassed to talk about the events. The men were dosed with LSD, the brothels were equipped with one-way mirrors, and the sessions were filmed for later viewing and study. In other experiments where people were given LSD without their knowledge, they were interrogated under bright lights with doctors in the background taking notes. The subjects were told that their "trips" would be extended indefinitely if they refused to reveal their secrets. The people being interrogated this way were CIA employees, U.S. military personnel, and agents suspected of working for the other side in the Cold War. Long-term debilitation and several deaths resulted from this. Heroin addicts were bribed into taking LSD with offers of more heroin.
The office of Security used LSD in interrogations but Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, the chemist who directed MK Ultra, had other ideas:
thought it could be used in covert operations. Since its effects were temporary, he believed it could be given to high officials and in this way affect the course of important meetings, speeches etc. Since he realized there was a difference in testing the drug in a laboratory and using it in clandestine operations, he initiated a series of experiments where LSD was given to people in "normal" settings without warning. At first, everyone in Technical Services tried it; a typical experiment involved two people in a room where they observed each other for hours and took notes. As the experimentation progressed, a point was reached where outsiders were drugged with no explanation whatsoever and surprise acid trips became something of an occupational hazard among CIA operatives. Adverse reactions often occurred, for example an operative who had received the drug in his morning coffee, became psychotic and ran across Washington, seeing a monster in every car that passed him. The experiments continued even after Dr. Frank Olson, an Army scientist who had not taken LSD before, went into deep depression after a surprise trip and later fell from a thirteenth story window (it is unclear whether he committed suicide or was murdered).
Some subjects' participation was consensual, and in these cases they appeared to be singled out for even more extreme
experiments. In one case, seven volunteers in Kentucky were given LSD for 77 consecutive days. LSD was eventually dismissed by MK Ultra's researchers as too unpredictable in its results. They had given upon the notion that LSD was "the secret that was going
to unlock the universe," but it still had a place in the cloak-and-dagger arsenal.
However, by 1962 the CIA and the army had developed a series of super
hallucinogens such as the highly touted BZ, which was thought to hold
greater promise as a mind control weapon. This resulted in the withdrawal of
support by many academics and private researchers, and LSD research
became less of a priority.
Another technique investigated was connecting a barbiturate IV into one arm
and an amphetamine IV into the other. The barbiturates were released into
the person first, and as soon as the person began to fall asleep, the
amphetamines were released. The person would then begin babbling
incoherently, and it was sometimes possible to ask questions and get useful
Other experiments involved drugs such as temazepam (code name MK
SEARCH), heroin, morphine, mescaline, psilocybin, scopolamine, marijuana, alcohol, sodium pentothal, and ergine .
In 1973, with the government-wide panic caused by Watergate, the CIA Director Richard Helms ordered all MK Ultra files destroyed. Pursuant to this order, most CIA documents regarding the project were destroyed, making a full investigation of MK Ultra impossible.
A cache of some 20,000 documents survived Helms' purge, as they had been incorrectly stored in a financial records building and were discovered following a FOIA request in 1977. These documents were fully investigated during the Senate Hearings of 1977. In December 1974, The New York Times alleged that the CIA had conducted illegal domestic activities, including experiments on U.S. citizens, during the 1960s. That report prompted investigations by the U.S. Congress, in the form of the Church Committee, and by a presidential commission known as the Rockefeller Commission that looked into domestic activities of the CIA, the FBI, and intelligence-related agencies of the military.
In the summer of 1975, congressional Church Committee reports and the presidential Rockefeller Commission report revealed to
the public for the first time that the CIA and the Department of Defense had conducted experiments on both unwitting and cognizant human subjects as part of an extensive program to influence and control human behavior through the use of psychoactive drugs
such as LSD and mescaline and other chemical, biological, and psychological means. They also revealed that at least one subject had died after administration of LSD. Much of what the Church Committee and the Rockefeller Commission learned about MK Ultra was contained in a report, prepared by the Inspector General's office in 1963, that had survived the destruction of records ordered in 1973. However, it contained little detail. Sidney Gottlieb, who had retired from the CIA two years previously, was interviewed by the committee but claimed to have very little recollection of the activities of MK Ultra.
On the Senate floor in 1977, Senator Ted Kennedy said:
The Deputy Director of the CIA revealed that over thirty universities and institutions were involved in an "extensive testing and experimentation" program which included covert drug tests on unwitting citizens "at all social levels, high and low, native Americans and foreign." Several of these tests involved the administration of LSD to "unwitting subjects in social situations." At least one death, that of Dr. Olson, resulted from these activities. The Agency itself acknowledged that these tests made little scientific sense. The agents doing the monitoring were not qualified scientific observers.
The U.S. General Accounting Office issued a report on September 28, 1984, which stated that between 1940 and 1974, DOD and other national security agencies studied thousands of human subjects in tests and experiments involving hazardous substances.
The quote from the study:
Working with the CIA, the Department of Defense gave hallucinogenic drugs to thousands of "volunteer" soldiers in the 1950s and 1960s. In addition to LSD, the Army also tested quinuclidinyl benzilate, a hallucinogen codenamed BZ. Many of these tests were conducted under the so-called MK ULTRA program, established to counter perceived Soviet and Chinese advances in brainwashing techniques. Between 1953 and 1964, the program consisted of 149 projects involving drug testing and other studies on unwitting human subjects.
Given the CIA's purposeful destruction of most records, its failure to follow informed consent
protocols with thousands of participants, the uncontrolled nature of the experiments,
and the lack of follow-up data, the full impact of MK Ultra experiments, including deaths,
will never be known.